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Research Related to Start Time Modification

To assist our stakeholders in understanding the science and studies behind the initiative to adjust start times for adolescents, we suggest a review of the following resources.  Many of these resources were reviewed by the Start Time Committee and led them to the recommendation to consider a start time change for our adolescents.
A summary of the research indicates the following:
  1. Starting instruction at developmentally appropriate hours improves overall student health, academic performance and results in teenagers getting more sleep.
  2. There is a reduction in auto accidents, depression, use of caffeine and other substances, absenteeism, and tardiness for students.
We believe that this initiative will have a direct positive impact on the following District Goals and Priorities:
  • Academic Achievement –
    •   Articulate and align a culturally relevant, rigorous and engaging curriculum and assessment system PreK-12.
      •    Prepare every student to be college or career ready - able to think critically, solve problems, communicate effectively, and work collaboratively with others.
  • Social & Emotional Learning –
    •    Maintain safe and supportive learning environments.
  • Partnerships with Families and Community –
    •    Collaborate with parent and community partners on District and school level goals and priorities.
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  1. American Academy of Pediatrics -– Policy Statement -– School Start Times for Adolescents
  2. Center for Disease Control and Prevention -– Press Release -– Most U.S. Middle and High Schools Start the School Day Too Early
  3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention -– Infographic -– Most U.S. Middle and High Schools Start the School Day Too Early
  4. The Impact of School Start Times on Adolescent Health and Academic Performance -– Research Paper from http://schoolstarttime.org
  5. American Psychological Association -– Paper -– Later School Start Times Promote Adolescent Well-Being
  6. National Association of School Nurses -– Consensus Statement -– Early School Start Times
  7. American Thoracic Society -– Policy Statement -– ATS Issues Recommendations on Healthy Sleep
  8. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on Problem Sleepiness
  9. National Institute of Health -– Fact Sheet -– Problem Sleepiness
  10. National Center on Sleep Disorders Research and Office of Prevention, Education, and Control -– Educating Youth about Sleep and Drowsy Driving
  11. The Children's National Medical Center's Blueprint for Change Team -– School Start Time Change: An In-Depth Examination of School Districts in the United States
  12. Regional Educational Laboratory response to inquiry on academic effect on later start times for schools. Developed by REL Mid-Atlantice at ICF International under Contract ED-IES-12-CO-0006 from the U.S. Department of Eduction, Institute of Education Sciences
  13. Fairfax, Virginia -– Board of Education Presentation on start time options, costs, and timelines
  14. Hanover Research -– Impact of School Start Time on Student Learning
2005 Case Studies from the National Sleep Foundation (NSF):
The following five case studies, put together by the National Sleep Foundation in 2005, show ways that various school districts returned to later, more developmentally appropriate school hours. Each profile includes information about the bell schedules before and after the change, a profile of each school district, specific challenges, and corresponding solutions as well as how changes were made and managed and what benefits were accomplished.
  1. NSF: Changing School Times: Arlington, VA
  2. NSF: Changing School Times: Denver, CO
  3. NSF: Changing School Times: Fayette, KY
  4. NSF: Changing School Times: Jessamine, KY
  5. NSF: Changing School Times: Wilton, CT
Timeline for Start Time Change
Start Time Presentation